The Abnormal growth of cells having a potential invading the other parts of the body leading to a disease situation is known as cancer. Cancer may be benign or malignant. As we know benign tumors do not spread while the malignant spread like wildfire and disease-causing tumors cells. This malignant cancer can be of many types depending on the body part it is infected with. Cancers are more than 100 types. The risk of cancer significantly increases with age and developing the world. The abnormal growth of cells invading other body parts called as neoplasms are diffused all over. As we know that initial stages of cancer have no signs, it just appears to be as ulcerates.
Metastasis is a condition where the cancerous cells spread via hematogenous through blood or lymph nodes. The symptoms depend on the tumor location for metastasis cancer. The genetic mutation occurs in the molecular level inside the human body is due to the environment we live in and the lifestyle we follow for the long-time causes of 90-95% cancer. And the rest 5-10% is caused by inherited genes. Environmental condition is where the cause is not inherited but is caused due to lifestyle, economic, behavioral. General factors are life intake of tobacco, diet, obesity, lack of exercise, radiation, and pollution. Exposure to certain types of chemicals also leads to the cause of cancer known as carcinogens.
Cancer prevention can be possible by taking active measures in decreasing cancer risk. The major aspect involved in this environmental risk factors, which can be controlled by the simple lifestyle changes. A major percentage of common cancer 70-90% is due to environmental factors, which is preventable. Research shows 50% of both cancer cases and cancer deaths can be preventable with the present knowledge. Early detection and prevention is the most important factor. This preventing is more effective, proven and has effective strategies to lower health care costs. The earlier screening tests help in detecting if any malignancies. But one should be aware of the symptoms always. The American Cancer Society has worked and developed a reminder of ease to remember long,
C as Change in bowel or bladder habits
A as A sore that does not heal
U as Unusual bleeding or discharge
T as Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere
I as Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
O as Obvious change in a wart or mole
N as Nagging cough or hoarseness
Steps to prevent cancer
1. Eat Healthily: Healthy food consumption like taking fresh fruits and vegetables is a way to lead a better life. Intake of fresh foods lowers the risk of reducing cancer. Avoid heavy fat included foods, refined sugars, calorie foods. Avoiding the intake of processed meat helps in avoiding certain types of cancer. Intake of the Mediterranean diet with extra virgin olive oil along with mixed nuts helps in preventing risks of breast cancer. Mediterranean foods include plant-based foods, fruits, and vegetables, grains, nuts, and legumes. Usage of Broccoli, carrots, beans, cinnamon, berries, turmeric, olive oil, nuts, citrus fruits, tomatoes, flax seeds, garlic is a good source which helps in preventing cancer.
2. Stop Using Tobacco and Alcohol: Tobacco usage has linked to the cause of cancer. Smoking results in various cancers like throat, larynx, lungs, mouth, pancreas, cervix, kidneys and bladder. Tobacco chewing results in mouth and pancreatic cancer. Passive inhalers can also be included in the list of getting infected with cancer. It is better avoiding tobacco to prevent cancer. One can quit tobacco by taking the help of doctors. Alcohol intake in high quantities results in mouth, throat, breast, liver, esophagus and other cancers. Drinking alcohol should be limited.
3. Healthy weight and Physically active: Inactivity results in causing certain types of cancer like colorectal and breast cancers. Adding exercising to routine works reduces the risk of stress, boosting energy and immune system, control of weight and reducing the risk of cancer. 30 minutes of daily physical activity makes a great difference in health and well-being. A moderate and vigorous activity combination is a good goal for health.
4. Getting Vaccinated: This vaccination is also a way of avoiding cancer. There are certain types of virus which on infection leads to cancer. There are cases where the people get infected with the Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus. It is also recommendable to have the HPV vaccines to avoid cancers of cervical and genital organs. This vaccine is recommended for girls and boys of 11-12 ages. The USFDA has approved a vaccine named “Gardasil 9” for males and females of 9-45 ages.
5. Getting Medical care in time: Having regular self-examinations and screening helps in preventing and detecting cancers like the colon, cervical, skin and breast cancers. This helps in early detection and thus helping in preventing and go-ahead for the treatment. Screening has been proven to help in avoiding the risks of cancers.
6. Stop risk behaving and have safe sex: Risky behaviors might lead to dangerous situations that lead to infections and cancer. Having multiple partners leads to sexually transmitted diseases, like HIV and HPV. HIV and HPV patients are always associated with cancers of anus, liver, lungs, anus, penis, throat, vagina and vulva. It is safe to have the use of a condom when having sex. Hepatitis B and C virus can lead to the risk of having liver cancer. It is safe to avoid the sharing of needles who are used to the drug usage intake.
7. Avoid exposure to Sun: Skin cancer caused by exposure to the sun is most common. People get exposed to the sun’s UV radiation is the cause of the most type of cancers. Avoiding the sun in between 10-4 pm can prevent cancer. When outdoors staying under the shade and usage of sunglasses helps in avoiding the cancer risks. The usage of loose clothes and tight woven clothes is good at avoiding UV rays. Use at least SPF 30 even on cloudy days, reapplying for every 2 hrs and even while swimming is good to prevent skin cancers.
8. Vitamin D: Experts recommend 800-1000 IU of vitamin D, which helps in reducing the risk of prostate, colon and other cancers.
9. Good Sound Sleep: There is no direct evidence for having cancer caused due to sleeplessness, but it is recommended to have good sleep as this results in weight gain, which is a cancer risk factor.
10. Avoid Toxic Chemicals: Carcinogen alters the DNA in the cells and may lead to cancer. It may through breathing, direct contact or touch. Radon, benzene, asbestos, is common where we meet this. Chemicals in pesticides, plastics, weedkillers also cause cancers. It is safe to avoid such chemicals.
11. Knowing Family History: There are chances of getting inherited with the cancerous genes that have been passed without DNA repair into the offspring. So it is better to know the history of the family can consult the doctor going for a genetic test.